University of Michigan

Selected research publications

Selected recent journal articles or book chapters from the UM-HMRC. To view abstracts, you'll need Adobe Reader.

Multilevel Analysis of the Physical Health Perception of Employees: Community and Individual Factors. Sathyanarayanan S., Brooks A.J., Hagen S.E., Edington D.W. American Journal of Health Promotion. 26(5): 126-136. 2012 GET ABSTRACT!

Effects of environmentally-focussed interventions on health risks and absenteeism. Marzec M., Golaszewski T., Musich S., Powers P.E., Shewry S., Edington D.W. International Journal of Workplace Health Management. 4(3): 200-215, 2011. GET ABSTRACT!

Change in Health Risks Associated with a Total Population Health Promotion Counseling Program in a Healthcare System. Wright D.W., Schultz A, Edington D.W. Journal of Health and Productivity. 5(1): 3-9, 2010. GET ABSTRACT!

Presenteeism: Critical Issues. Brooks A., Hagen S.E., Sathyanarayanan S., Schultz A.B., Edington D.W. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 52(11):1055-67, 2010.  GET ABSTRACT!

An Observational Study of an Employer Intervention for Children's Healthy Weight Behaviors. Sepulveda MJ., Lu C., Sill S., Young JM., Edington DW. Pediatrics. 126(5):1153-60, 2010.  GET ABSTRACT!

Long-term Return on Investment of an Employee Health Enhancement Program at a Midwest Utility Company from 1999 to 2007. Yen, L., Schultz, A.B., Schaefer, C., Bloomberg, S., and Edington, D.W. International Journal of Workplace Health Management. 3(2):79-96. 2010.  GET ABSTRACT!

Analysis of the Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Disease in a Workplace Population over Time. Schultz, A.B. and Edington, D.W. Value in Health. 13(2):258-64. 2010.  GET ABSTRACT!

Spousal Concordance for Overall Health Risk Status and Preventive Service Compliance. Pai, C.W., Godboldo-Brooks, A., Edington, D.W. Annals of Epidemiology. 20(7):539-46. 2010. GET ABSTRACT!

The Association between Achieving Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) Goal and Statin Treatment in an Employee Population. Burton, W.N., Chen, C.Y., Schultz, A.B., Edington, D.W. Population Health Management. 13(1):1-8. 2010. GET ABSTRACT!

Metabolic Syndrome in a Workplace: Prevalence, Co-Morbidities, and Economic Impact . A.B. Schultz and D.W. Edington. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders . 7(5):459-468. 2009. GET ABSTRACT!

Factors associated with Incidental Sickness Absence among Employees in One Health Care System. C.W. Pai, J. Mullin, G.M. Payne, J. Love, G. O'Connell, D.W. Edington. American Journal of Health Promotion. 24(1):37-48. 2009. GET ABSTRACT!

The Cost and Impact of Health Conditions on Presenteeism to Employers: A Review of the Literature . A.B. Schultz, C.Y. Chen, D.W. Edington. Pharmacoeconomics. 27(5):365-378. 2009. GET ABSTRACT!

The Association between Changes in Metabolic Syndrome and Changes in Cost in a Workplace Population. A.B. Schultz and D.W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 51(7):771-779. 2009. GET ABSTRACT!

Averting the Collision between Rising Health Care Costs and Corporate Survival. Ken Blanchard and Dee Edington. Leader to Leader 53:Summer, 24-30, 2009. GET ABSTRACT!

Changing Culture to Support Wellness. Interview by John Marcille. Edington, D.W. Managed Care 18(3):22-24. 2009.

Effect of Health Risk Appraisal Frequency on Change in Health Status. Pai, C.W., S.E. Hagen, J. Bender, D. Shoemaker, D.W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 51(4):429-34, 2009. GET ABSTRACT!

Effects of an Incentive-Based Online Physical Activity Intervention on Health Care Costs. Lu, C. A. B. Schultz, S. Sill, R. Petersen, J.M. Young, D.W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 50(11):1209-1215, 2008. GET ABSTRACT!

The Association between a Tiered Pharmacy Benefit Plan and Medication Usage, Health Status and Disability Absence Days. Burton Wayne N., Chin-Yu Chen, Alyssa B Schultz, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 50(10):1176-1184, 2008. GET ABSTRACT!

The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in an Employed Population and the Impact on Health and Productivity . Burton, W.N., C.Y. Chen, A.B. Schultz, D.W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 50(10):1139-48, 2008. GET ABSTRACT!

Association between Behavioral Intention and Actual Change for Physical Activity, Smoking and Body Weight among an Employed Population. Pai, Chih-Wen, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2008;50(9):1077-1083. GET ABSTRACT!

Effectiveness of Employee Internet-Based Weight Management Program. Petersen R, S. Sill, C. Lu C, J. Young, D.W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 50(2):163-71, 2008. GET ABSTRACT!

Measurement and Quanitification of Presenteeism: Letters to the Editor. Cyr, Amanda, Susan Hagen. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2007;49(12):1299.

Working Toward a Well Workforce. Edington, Dee W. Michigan Forward. November/December 2007. 4-6.

Employee Health and Presenteeism: A Systematic Review. Schultz, Alyssa B., Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation. 17(3):547-579, 2007. GET ABSTRACT!

The Association of Antidepressant Medication Adherence with Employee Disability Absences. Burton, Wayne N., Chin-Yu Chen, Alyssa B Schultz, Daniel J. Conti, Dee W. Edington. American Journal of Managed Care. 13(2):105-112, 2007. GET ABSTRACT!

Who are the Intended Beneficiaries (Targets) of Employee Health Promotion and Wellness Programs? Edington, Dee W. North Carolina Medical Journal. 67(6):425-427, 2006. GET ABSTRACT!

The Savings Gained from Participation in Health Promotion Programs for Medicare Beneficiaries.  Ozminkowski, RJ, Ronald Goetzel, Feifei Wang, Teresa Gibson, D. Shechter, Shirley Musich, Joel Bender, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 48(11):1125-1132, 2006. GET ABSTRACT!

The Association of Corporate Work Environment Factors, Health Risks and Medical Conditions with Presenteeism Among Australian Employees. Musich, Shirley, Dan Hook, Stephanie Baaner, Michelle Spooner, Dee W. Edington. American Journal of Health Promotion. 21(2):127-36, 2006. GET ABSTRACT!

Financial Costs due to Excess Health Risks among Active Employees of a Utility Company. Yen, Louis, Alyssa B. Schultz, Elaine Schnueringer, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 48(9):896-905, 2006. GET ABSTRACT!

Effectiveness of an Incentive-Based Online Physical Activity Intervention on Employee Health Status. Herman, Christopher, Shirley Musich, Chifung Lu, Stewart Sill, Joyce Young, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 48(9): 889-895, 2006. GET ABSTRACT!

Association of Healthcare Costs with Per Unit Body Mass Index Increase. Wang, Feifei, Timothy McDonald, Joel Bender, Bonnie Reffitt, Adam Miller, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 48(7):668-674, 2006. GET ABSTRACT!

Documenting Participation in an Employer-sponsored Disease Management Program: Selection, Exclusion, Attrition, and Active Engagement as Possible Metrics. Lynch, Wendy, Chin-Yu Chen, Joel Bender, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 48(5):447-454, 2006. GET ABSTRACT!

Worker Productivity Loss Associated with Arthritis. Burton, Wayne N., Chin-Yu Chen, Alyssa B. Schultz, Daniel J. Conti, Glenn Pransky, Dee W. Edington. Disease Management. 9(3): 131-143, 2006. GET ABSTRACT!

The Association of Two Productivity Measures with Health Risks and Medical Conditions in an Australian Employee Population. Musich, Shirley, Dan Hook, Stephanie Baaner, Dee W. Edington. American Journal of Health Promotion. 20:353-363. 2006. GET ABSTRACT!

Status Report on Disease Management Efforts for the Health Promotion Community. Musich, Shirley, Larry Chapman. American Journal of Health Promotion. 20(3): S1-S9. January/February 2006. GET ABSTRACT!

The Association between Health Risk Change and Presenteeism Change. Burton, Wayne N., Chin-Yu Chen, Daniel J. Conti, Alyssa B. Schultz, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 48(3):252-263, 2006. GET ABSTRACT!

Participation in an Employer-Sponsored Wellness Program Before and After Retirement. Yen, Louis, Alyssa B. Schultz, Timothy McDonald, Laura Champagne, Dee W. Edington. American Journal of Health Behavior. 30(1):27-38, 2006. GET ABSTRACT!

The Association of Health Risks with On-the-job Productivity. Burton, Wayne N., Chin-Yu Chen, Dan Conti, Alyssa B. Schultz, Glenn Pransky, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 47(8):769-77, 2005. GET ABSTRACT!

Fitness Centers: The Premier Low-Risk Maintenance Program. McCallister, Tre, Ben Ingram, Shirley Musich, Laura Adams, Dee W. Edington. Fitness Management: Fitness On-Site. 22-25, Spring 2005.

BMI, Physical Activity, and Health Care Utilization/Costs among Medicare Retirees. Wang, Feifei, Timothy McDonald, Bonnie Reffitt and Dee W. Edington. Obesity Research, 13(8):1450-7. August 2005. GET ABSTRACT!

The Association of Health Status, Worksite Fitness Center Participation, and Two Measures of Productivity. Burton, Wayne N., Tre McCallister, Chin-Yu Chen, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 47(4):343-351. 2005. GET ABSTRACT!

Managing your low-risk population. Dee W. Edington. Health Promotion Practitioner. 14(1):7-8. 2005.

How Health Risk Appraisals Can Take your Program to the Next Level. Dee W. Edington. Wellness Councils of America: A WELCOA Expert Interview (Parts 1 and 2). 2004.

Assessment of Possible Impact of a Health Promotion Program in Korea from Health Risk Trends in a Longitudinally Observed Cohort. Park, Jin H., S. H. Jee, Dee W. Edington. Population Health Metrics. 2(10):1-10. 2004. GET ABSTRACT!

HPM Survey Measurement Issues and Methods. Musich, Shirley, Joe Leutzinger. In: Platinum Book, Institute of Health and Productivity Management. (Phoenix). 120-127. 2004.

Application of a Prediction Model for Identification of Individuals at Diabetic Risk. Park, Jin, Dee W. Edington. Methods of Information in Medicine. 43(3):293-301. 2004. GET ABSTRACT!

Associating Changes in Health Risk Levels with Changes in Medical and Short-Term Disability Costs. Edington, Dee W., Shirley Musich. Health and Productivity Management. 3(1):12-15. 2004. GET ABSTRACT!

Caregiving for Ill Dependents and its Association with Employee Health Risks and Productivity. Burton, Wayne, Chin-Yu Chen, Daniel Conti, Glenn Pransky, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 46(10):1048-1056. 2004. GET ABSTRACT!

Overview of Disease Management Approaches: Implications for Corporate-Sponsored Programs. Musich, Shirley, Alyssa Schultz, Wayne N. Burton, Dee W. Edington. Disease Management & Health Outcomes. 12(5):299-326. 2004. GET ABSTRACT!

Comparing Excess Costs across Multiple Corporate Populations. Wright, Douglas, Laura Adams, M. Beard, et al. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 46(9):937-945. 2004. GET ABSTRACT!

The Association of Medical Conditions and Presenteeism. Burton, Wayne, Glenn Pransky, Daniel Conti, Chin-Yu Chen, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 46(6): S38-S45, 2004. GET ABSTRACT!

Relationship of Body Mass Index and Physical Activity to Health Care Costs among Employees. Wang, Feifei, Tim McDonald, Laura Champagne, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 46(5): 428-436, 2004. GET ABSTRACT!

The Influence of Additional Health Risks on Medical Charges and Prevalence of Diabetes Within Body Mass Index Categories. Musich, Shirley, Chifung Lu, Timothy McDonald, Laura Champagne, Dee W. Edington. American Journal of Health Promotion. 18(3): 264-268, 2004. GET ABSTRACT!

Pattern of Medical Charges After Quitting Smoking Among Those With and Without Arthritis, Allergies, or Back Pain. Musich, Shirley, Stephanie D. Faruzzi, Chifung Lu, Timothy McDonald, David Hirschland, Dee W. Edington. American Journal of Health Promotion. 18(2): 133-142, 2003. GET ABSTRACT!

Association between Wellness Score from a Health Risk Appraisal and Prospective Medical Claims Costs. Yen, Louis, Timothy McDonald, David Hirschland, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 45(10): 1049-1057, 2003. GET ABSTRACT!

Measuring the Relationship Between Employees? Health Risk Factors and Corporate Pharmaceutical Expenditures. Burton, Wayne, Chin-Yu Chen, Daniel Conti, Alyssa Schultz, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 45(8): 793-802, 2003. GET ABSTRACT!

Opportunities to Improve Care and Manage Costs for Employees with Chronic Disease. Edington, D.W. Managed Care Interface. Supplement C:5-7. 2003.

A Practical Approach to Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Edington, Dee W., Wayne N. Burton. Health and Productivity. Chapter in McCunney, R. J. 3rd Edition. Little, Brown and Company. Boston 2003.

The Relationship Between NHLBI Weight Guidelines and Concurrent Medical Costs in a Manufacturing Population. Wang, Feifei, Alyssa Shultz, Shirley Musich, Tim McDonald, David Hirschland, Dee W. Edington. American Journal of Health Promotion. 17(3):183-189, 2003. GET ABSTRACT!

The Association Between Health Risk Status and Healthcare Costs Among the Membership of an Australian Health Plan. Musich, Shirley, Dan Hook, Tracey Barnett, Dee W. Edington. Health Promotion International. 18(1):57-65, 2003. GET ABSTRACT!

Examination of Risk Status Transitions Among Active Employees in a Comprehensive Worksite Health Promotion Program Risk. Musich, Shirley, Timothy McDonald, David Hirschland, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.45(4):393-399, 2003. GET ABSTRACT!

The Case for Low-Risk Maintenance. Edington, Dee W., Shirley Musich. Absolute Advantage. 2(5):22-25, 2003.

Influence of Participation in a Worksite Health Promotion Program on Disability Days. Schultz, Alyssa B., Chifung Lu, Tracey E. Barnett, Louis Tze-ching Yen, Timothy McDonald, David Hirschland, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 44(8): 776-780, 2002. GET ABSTRACT!

The Value of the Periodic Executive Health Examination: Experience at Bank One and Summary of the Literature. Burton, Wayne N., Chin-Yu Chen, Daniel J. Conti, Alyssa B. Schultz, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 44(8):737-744, 2002. GET ABSTRACT!

Excess Healthcare Costs Associated with Excess Health Risks Among Diseased and Non-Diseased Health Risk Appraisal Participants in an Australian Health Plan. Hook, Dan, Shirley Musich, Dee W. Edington. Healthcover 18(1):57-65, 2002.

The Association of Health Risks with the Cost of Time Away from Work. Wright, Douglas W. Marshall J. Beard, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 44(12):1126-1134, 2002. GET ABSTRACT!

Excess Costs by Disease Categories. Musich, Shirley, David Hirschland, Timothy McDonald, Dee W Edington. Disease Management and Outcomes. 10(4):251-258, 2002.

Improving the Value of Health Benefit Plans Through Consumer-Driven Health Care. Milstein, Arnold, Wendy Lynch, Dee W. Edington. Mercer Human Resources Consulting. April 2002.

The Economic Burden of Lost Productivity Due to Migraine Headache: A Specific Worksite Analysis. Burton, Wayne, Dan Conti, Chin-Yu Chen, Alyssa Schultz, D. W. Edington. Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health. 44(6): 523-528, 2002. GET ABSTRACT!

The UAW-GM Health Promotion Program: Successful Outcomes. Edington, Marilyn P., Terry Karjalainen, Dee W. Edington. American Association of Occupational Health Nursing Journal. 50(1): 26-31, 2002. GET ABSTRACT!

Prediction of Diabetes. Park, Jin H., Dee W. Edington. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine. 23(2001): 277-293, 2001.

Self-Reported Utilization of Preventive health Services Among Retired Employees 65 Years and Older. Musich, Shirley A., Aartee Phatak, Timothy McDonald, David Hirschland, Dee W. Edington. Journal of American Geriatrics Society. 49(12): 1665-1672, 2001. GET ABSTRACT!

Changes in Health Risks among the Participants in the United Auto Workers-General Motors LifeSteps Health Promotion Program. Louis Yen, Marilyn Pearce Edington, Timothy McDonald, David Hirschland and Dee W. Edington. American Journal of Health Promotion. 2001, 16(1): 7-15. GET ABSTRACT!

Internal Associations Among Health-risk Factors and Risk Prevalence. Alexandra Braunstein, Yi Li, David Hirschland, Tim McDonald and Dee W. Edington. American Journal of Health Behavior. July/August 2001, 25(4). GET ABSTRACT!

Asthma Disease Management: A Worksite-Based Asthma Education Program. Wayne N. Burton, Catherine M. Connerty, Alyssa B. Schultz, Chin-Yu Chen and Dee W. Edington. Disease Management. 4(1): 3-13, 2001.

Emerging Research: A View from One Research Center. Dee W. Edington. American Journal of Health Promotion. May/June 2001, 15(5): 341-349. GET ABSTRACT!

A Case Study of Ten-Year Health Risk Appraisal Participation Patterns in a Comprehensive Health Promotion Program. Shirley A. Musich, Laura Adams, Gail DeWolf and Dee W. Edington. American Journal of Health Promotion. March/April 2001, 15(4): 237-240. GET ABSTRACT!

Bank One's Worksite-Based Asthma Disease Management Program. Wayne N. Burton, Catherine M. Connerty, Alyssa B. Schultz, Chin-Yu Chen and Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. February 2001, 43(2): 875-82. GET ABSTRACT!

The Association of Health Risks with Workers' Compensation Costs. Shirley Musich, Deborah Napier, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2001,43(6):534-541. GET ABSTRACT!

The Impact of Allergies and Allergy Treatment on Worker Productivity. Wayne N. Burton, Daniel J. Conti, Chin-Yu Chen, Alyssa B. Schultz and Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. January 2001, 43(1): 64-71. GET ABSTRACT!

Trends in Worksite Health Literature 1969-1999. Alyssa B. Schultz, Joanna S. Broder, Alexandra Braunstein and Dee W. Edington. AWHP's Worksite Health. Spring/Summer 2000, 7(2): 27-32. GET ABSTRACT!

Effectiveness of Health Promotion Programs in Moderating Medical Costs in the USA. Shirley A. Musich, Laura Adams, and Dee W. Edington. Health Promotion International. March 2000, 15(1): 5-15. GET ABSTRACT!

Effectiveness of Health Promotion Programs in Moderating Medical Costs. Musich, Shirley A., Laura Adams, Dee W. Edington. Health Promotion International. March 1999, 5(3): 153-166. GET ABSTRACT!

Benefits of Onsite Fitness. Fitness Management. Musich, Shirley, Laura Adams, Joanna Broder, Dee W. Edington. 15(11): 54-57, 1999. GET ABSTRACT!

The Costs of Body Mass Index Levels in an Employed Population. Burton, Wayne, Chin-Yu Chen, Alyssa B. Schultz, Dee W. Edington. Statistical Bulletin. 80 (3): 8-14, 1999.

The Reliability and Validity of HRAs. Dee W. Edington, Louis Yen and Alexandra Braunstein. SPM Handbook of Health Assessment Tools, 1999.

The Role of Health Risk Factors and Disease on Worker Productivity. Burton, Wayne N., Daniel J. Conti, Chin-Yu Chen, Alyssa B. Schultz, Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health. 41(10): 863-877, 1999. GET ABSTRACT!

Early Survey Evaluation of the United Auto Workers and General Motors LifeSteps Health Promotion Program. Yen, Louis, M.P. Edington, Chi-Fung Lu, D. W. Edington. Worksite Health. 6(1): 28-34, 1999. GET ABSTRACT

Ten Research Studies You Cant Afford to Ignore, Parts I and II. Dee Edington, Marilyn Edington and Louis Yen. AWHPs Worksite Health. Spring 1996 and Fall 1994, Pull-Out Poster Dee Edington, Marilyn Edington and Louis Yen. AWHPs Worksite Health. Summer 1995, 1996.

Ten Research Studies You Cant Afford to Ignore, Parts III through VI. Dee W. Edington and Alexandra Braunstein. AWHPs Worksite Health. Summers 1997,1998, 1999, 2000 and Fall 2000, Pull-Out Poster.

Costs and Benefits of Prevention and Disease Management. Shirley A. Musich, Wayne N. Burton, Dee W. Edington. Disease Management & Health Outcomes. March 1999; 5(3): 153-166. GET ABSTRACT!

The Economic Costs Associated with Body Mass Index in a Workplace. Wayne N. Burton, Chin-Yu Chen, Alyssa B. Schultz, and Dee W. Edington. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. September 1998, 40(9): 786-792. GET ABSTRACT!

The Financial Impact of Changes in Personal Health Practices. Dee Edington, Louis Tze-ching, Pamela Witting. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. November 1997, 39(11): 1037-1046. GET ABSTRACT!

Worksite Health Program Preferences by Gender and Health Risk. Edington, Marilyn, Mary Ann Sharp, Kelley Vreeken, Louis Yen, D.W. Edington. American Journal of Health Behavior. 21(3): 207-215, 1997. GET ABSTRACT!

Preliminary Evaluation of a Worksite Influenza Vaccination Program: The Experience of the Progressive Corporation. Musich, Shirley, Laura Adams, Joanna Broder, Alyssa Belaire, Louis Yen, Chi-Fung Lu, Irwin Moore, Dee W. Edington. Worksite Health. 3(4): 27-34, 1996. GET ABSTRACT!

Predicting the Demand for Healthcare. Wendy D. Lynch, D. W. Edington, Alan Johnson. Healthcare Forum Journal. January/February 1996, 39(1): 20-24. GET ABSTRACT! (49K PDF)

Health Behaviors and Risk Appraisals. D. W. Edington. Worksite Health Promotion Economics, 1995: 97-115.

Corporate Medical Claims Cost Distributions and Factors Associated with High-Cost Status. Yen, Louis Tze-ching, Dee W. Edington, Pamela Witting. Journal of Occupational Medicine. May 1994, 36(5): 505-515. GET ABSTRACT!

Prediction of Prospective Medical Claims and Absenteeism Costs for 1,284 Hourly Workers from a Manufacturing Company. Louis Tze-ching Yen, Dee W. Edington, Pamela Witting. Journal of Occupational Medicine. April 1992, 34(4): 428-435. GET ABSTRACT!

Associations Between Employee Health-related Measures and Prospective Medical Insurance Costs in a Manufacturing Company. Yen, Louis Tze-ching, D. W. Edington and Pam Witting. American Journal of Health Promotion. 6:46-54, 1991. GET ABSTRACT!

Comparing the Predictive Accuracy of Health Risk Appraisal: The Centers for Disease Control Versus Carter Center Program. Gazmararian, Julie A., Foxman, Betsy, Yen, Louis Tze-Ching, Morgenstern, Hal, and Edington, Dee W. American Journal of Public Health. October 1991; 81(10): 1296-1301. GET ABSTRACT!